Geoscience Services

Thin Section Analysis

Detailed description of thin sections provides rock type, texture (grain shape, grain size, grain sorting and packing), mineral composition, depositional fabric (laminations, micro-fractures, bioturbation) and assessment of porosity and reservoir quality. Data interpretation includes textural and mineralogical indicators of depositional environment, depositional and diagenetic controls on porosity, mineralogical controls on log response and assessment of reservoir quality and sensitivity.

X-ray diffration (XRD)

XRD analysis provides mineral composition of rock samples including detailed analysis of clay minerals. This data can be used in conjunction with thin section and SEM petrography to further evaluate reservoir quality, determine the presence of expandable smectitic clays and provide clay mineralogy for log calibration and V-Clay determination. XRD mineralogy can also be used to calibrate other mineralogical and geochemical data for use in sequence stratigraphic correlation, environment interpretation and provenance studies. XRD analysis can also be used to identify scales and corrosion products.

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

SEM analysis allows detailed observation and evaluation of macro and micro pore networks providing direct information on pore size, geometry and connectivity for reservoir quality. Authigenic pore-filling and pore-lining clays can be directly observed and identified based on crystal morphology and elemental composition through EDS analysis. The location of these clays within the pore system is critical in assessment of reservoir sensitivity to rock-fluid interaction and potential formation damage through fines migration, clay expansion and adverse mineral reaction following acidisation. SEM analysis can help to establish the paragenesis in conjunction with thin section observations.

Core Logging

Detailed sedimentological core description provides a permanent digital record of geological information in the core for future review presented in an easily accessible graphic format as a core log plotted at 1:50, 1:100 and 1:200 scales. Lithological features recorded include lithology, grain size, sorting, clay ratio, sedimentary structures, lithological accessories, trace fossils, bioturbation intensity, visible porosity, pore types, hydrocarbon stain and show, colour, diagenetic features and fractures. These features provide the basis for facies classification and depositional environment interpretation. Cyclicity and significant surfaces are recorded for sequence stratigraphic correlation and interpretation. Core analysis data is plotted and facies and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality can be visualised. Bed thicknesses and sand: clay ratios are recorded to determine net to gross. Wireline data is also plotted at 1:100 and 1:200 scale allowing core to log depth matching and providing a basis for log calibration. The sedimentological core log is also invaluable for selection of samples for core analyses and petrography based on facies, diagenetic and reservoir characteristics.


Hydrocarbon source rock data are used to delineate potential source rock horizons and to determine their proclivity (oil vs gas-prone) and thermal maturity. Our services provide Rock-Eval pyrolysis to measure the organic richness and quality in sedimentary rocks including kerogen typing, identification of macerals and vitrinite reflectance to evaluate thermal maturity of source rocks.


GEN Labs provides high-resolution biostratigraphic analyses (foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton and palynology) for age dating, depositional environment assessment and correlation at all scales of resolution. Biostratigraphic data is critical for evaluation of basin development, tectonic history and relative timing of hydrocarbon generation and trap development. This data is also crucial to sequence stratigraphic correlation, dating of sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces, identification of paleoenvironments within systems tracts and in chronostratigraphic calibration of seismic and well log correlations.


Subtle variations in the elemental composition of sediments can provide additional information on sediment characterisation for use in correlation. Variations in elemental composition may be controlled by provenance, depositional environment, paleoclimate or diagenesis. Changes in these facies controls across sequence boundaries may be reflected in changes in elemental composition providing a powerful tool for stratigraphic correlation.

Fluid Inclusion Analysis

Analysis of fluid inclusions can provide valuable information on the timing and temperature of hydrocarbon generation and formation of cements. The main applications to the petroleum industry are temperature of mineral precipitation, composition and origin of mineralising fluids, later history of temperature, pressure and fluid composition, petroleum migration history, relative timing of porosity occlusion and deformation event conditions.

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